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Introduction

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a very complex illness and  an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). COVID-19’s impact on multiple organ systems, most notably the respiratory tract, has led to an increasing number of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The coronavirus that causes COVID-19 attacks the body in many different ways, ranging from mild to life threatening. Different organs and tissues of the body can be affected, including the blood.

 

Coronavirus and Blood Clots

Blood clots can cause problems ranging from mild to life threatening. If a clot blocks blood flow in a vein or artery, the tissue normally nourished by that blood vessel can be deprived of oxygen, and cells in that area can die.

Some people infected with SARS-CoV-2 develop abnormal blood clotting. “In some people with COVID-19, it’s been observed a massive inflammatory response, the cytokine storm that raises clotting factors in the blood,”

 

The Impact of Coronavirus Blood Clots Throughout the Body

In addition to the lungs, blood clots, including those associated with COVID-19, can also harm:

 

The nervous system. Blood clots in the arteries leading to the brain can cause a stroke. Some previously young, healthy people who have developed COVID-19 have suffered strokes, possibly due to abnormal blood clotting.

 

The kidneys. Clogging of blood vessels in the kidney with blood clots can lead to kidney failure. It can also complicate dialysis if the clots clog the filter of the machine designed to remove impurities in the blood.

 

Peripheral blood vessels and “COVID toe. Small blood clots can become lodged in tiny blood vessels. When this happens close to the skin, it can result in a rash. Some people who test positive for COVID-19 develop tiny blood clots that cause reddish or purple areas on the toes, which can itch or be painful. Sometimes called COVID toe, the rash resembles frostbite.

Managing Antithrombotic Therapy in Patients With COVID-19

 

Selection of Anticoagulant or Antiplatelet Drugs for Patients with COVID-19

Whenever anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy is used, potential drug-drug interactions with other concomitant drugs must be considered. In hospitalized, critically ill patients, low molecular weight heparin or unfractionated heparin is preferred over oral anticoagulants because the two types of heparin have shorter half-lives, can be administered intravenously or subcutaneously, and have fewer drug-drug interactions .

 

Oral Therapy for Non hospitalised patients

For Prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in non-valvular atrial fibrillation and Treatment of venous thromboembolism and prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism, below medicine can be advised on doctor’s recommendation according to proper risk stratification and other CVS related problem in Patients.

 

·       Apixaban (Eliquis®)

·       Rivaroxaban (Xarelto®)

·       Edoxaban (Lixiana®)

·       Dabigatran (Pradaxa®)

·       Apsirin

·       Dipyridamole

 

Special Considerations During Pregnancy and Lactation

Because pregnancy is a hypercoagulable state, the risk of thromboembolism is greater in pregnant individuals than in nonpregnant individuals. It is not yet known whether COVID-19 increases this risk. In several cohort studies of pregnant women with COVID-19 in the United States and Europe, VTE was not reported as a complication even among women with severe disease, although the receipt of prophylactic or therapeutic anticoagulation varied across the studies

Association Between COVID-19 and Thromboembolism

Infection with the Covid -19 and the resulting syndrome, COVID-19, have been associated with inflammation and a prothrombotic state, with increases in fibrin, fibrin degradation products, fibrinogen, and D-dimers

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